You must answer a total of six essay questions. Please choose five (5) of the following seven (7) essay questions and answer them, then answer question 8. Please number and write the questions you choose to answer in a single Word document. Each answer should be approximately half a page in length (about 15-20 lines of text). You may refer to your textbook for information, but your answers must be in your own words, i.e., not copied or copied and pasted from your textbook or other sources.
When you have completed the essays, please upload the Word document into the Dropbox and submit it to the instructor.
- Describe how a wave breaks on the shore as it transitions from a deep-water wave to a shallow-water wave. In your answer, be sure to include wave interference, wave refraction, and surf zone. Consult your textbook, pages 225-226.
- Explain the relative influence of the sun and the moon on tides. Please refer to your textbook, pages 242-245 for more information.
- Define the term coast and describe the factors that shape coastlines. How have human activities influenced coastal processes? Provide a specific example. Please refer to pages 278-281 of the textbook for assistance.
- Describe the process of water mixing in estuaries and the resulting four types of estuaries based on mixing. To help formulate your answer, consult Figure 11.22 in your textbook.
- Describe energy flow through a generalized marine trophic system. To help formulate your answer, consult Figure 12.14 in your textbook.
- Discuss the nature, distribution, and ecological importance of salt marshes and estuaries and explain why they are among the most productive of marine habitats. Please refer to your textbook, pages 343-347, for more information.
- When a species is overfished, what changes are there in the standing stock and the maximum sustainable yield? What are some problems with fisheries management? For assistance, consult your textbook, pages 373-377.
Everyone must answer question 8. Your answer for this question should be between 1 and 2 pages long.
- The Great Pacific Garbage Patch (GPGP) is a swirling mass of plastic that you can see from space. The search for missing Malaysian Airlines flight MH370 highlighted this environmental disaster and brought it into the public spotlight. Taking a look at the GPGP is a sobering way to realize there is no “away” or “dilute” option when it comes to trash, especially for trash that cannot be decomposed.
Develop a 1-2 page essay on how the GPGP attained such an enormous size and what can be done to minimize its negative impacts on marine environments. You are not being graded on your opinion, but on how effectively you can back up your opinion with facts and documentation. Please cite all sources according to APA format.
Compose your work using a word processor (or other software as appropriate) and save it frequently to your computer. Be sure to check your work and correct any spelling or grammatical errors before you upload it. When you are ready to submit your work, click “Browse My Computer” and find your file. Once you have located your file, click “Open” and, if successful, the file name will appear under the Attached files heading. Scroll to the bottom of the page and click “Submit.”
• Garrison, T. (2015). Essentials of Oceanography (7th ed.). Farmington, MI: Brooks/Cole Publishing.o Chapter 9: Waves
o Chapter 10: Tides
o Chapter 11: Coasts
o Chapter 12: Life in the Ocean
o Chapter 14: Benthic Communities
o Chapter 15: Uses and Abuses of the Ocean
• National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). (n.d.). Episode 126: The great Pacific garbage patch. Making Waves, National Ocean Service. Retrieved from http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/podcast/june14/mw126-garbagepatch.html
• National Geographic. (n.d.). Great Pacific garbage patch. Pacific Trash Vortex, Education. Retrieved from http://education.nationalgeographic.com/education/encyclopedia/great-pacific-garbage-patch/?ar_a=1