Explain Gottlob Frege’s puzzle about identity and his problem of substitutivity. How does Frege’s sense/reference distinction help t solve these problems? Explain one of the objections to Frege’s sense/reference distinction.

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A philosophy paper consists of the reasoned defense of some claim
Your paper must offer an argument. It can\’t consist in the mere report of your opinions, nor in a mere report of the opinions of the philosophers we discuss. You have to defend the claims you make. You have to offer reasons to believe them.

So you can\’t just say:

My view is that P.
You must say something like:
My view is that P. I believe this because…
I find that the following considerations…provide a convincing argument for P.
Similarly, don\’t just say:
Descartes says that Q.
Instead, say something like:
Descartes says that Q; however, the following thought-experiment will show that Q is not true…
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