A review of the following theories in 4 pages
1)Flege’s Speech Learning Model, “SLM,” – 1 page
Flege, J. (1995). Second Language Speech Learning: Theory, Findings and Problems. In
W. Strange (Ed.), Speech Perception and Linguistic Experience: Issues in Cross
Language Research (pp. 233-277). Timonium, MD: York Press.
2)PAM – “PAM,” (Best, 1994; Best et al., 2001) – 1 page
The emergence of native-language phonological influences in infants: A perceptual assimilation model. In J. C. Goodman & H. C. Nusbaum (Eds.), The development of speech perception: The transition from speech sounds to spoken words (pp. 167-224). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Best, C. T., McRoberts, G., & Goodell, E. (2001). Discrimination of non-native consonant contrasts varying in perceptual assimilation to the listener’s native phonological system. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, (109), 775-794.
3)PAM L2 – 1 page
Best, C. T., & Tyler, M. D. 2007. Nonnative and second-language speech perception. In O. S. Bohn, & M. J. Munro (Eds.), LanguageExperience in Second Language Speech Learning. in Honour ofJames Emil Flege (pp. 13-34). Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
4)Natural Language Magnet model, “NLM” (Kuhl, 1991, 1993, 2000) – 1 page
Kuhl, P. K., & Iverson, P. (1995). Linguistic experience and the perceptual magnet effect. In W.
Kuhl, P. K. (1993). Innate predispositions and the effects of experience in speech perception:
The native language magnet theory. In B. deBoysson-Bardies, S. de Schonen, P. Jusczyk,
P. McNeilage, & J. Morton (Eds.), Developmental neurocognition: Speech and face
processing in the first year of life (pp. 259-274). Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer
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